News - E-Cigarettes and addiction
In the last decade, e-cigarettes have exploded onto the market across the UK and much of the world – where it is permitted. The devices have been largely unregulated; especially in America, but the UK has some of the strictest rules for use. Still, studies have shown that their use has not curtained smoking so much. For a start, the nice designs, ease of use, lack of smoke and cool flavours have made them more accessible to people of all ages. In the US, 263,000 teenagers smoke e-cigs without ever having smoked a real one. Here in the UK, 40% of e-cigarette users are former smokers who kicked the habit, but have now returned to what they feel is a safer alternative. Studies by the University of California, San Francisco have shown that in 40,000 American students and 75,000 Koreans, e-cigarette smokers are more likely to want to quit smoking as a whole, but also more likely to smoke a real cigarette.
Not a Safe Alternative
It is true to say that the 10,000 odd chemicals and especially the 40 known carcinogens in tobacco have been minimised in the e-cigarette. However, they still contain nicotine and even then, traces of carcinogens is still unsafe. Nicotine itself has been linked to a wide range of health risks:
A Gateway to Addiction
Above we have seen that e-cigarettes are currently on unrestricted sale in the United States, which has led to 263,000 teenagers taking up the devices and forming a nicotine addiction. It could be worse for them because while new British laws will restrict sales to over 18s only, new research has shown that nicotine could be the ultimate gateway to drug addiction. This research was conducted by Denise Kandel, who originated the gateway hypothesis for marijuana in 1975, and her husband, Nobel Prize winner Eric Kandel, who specialises in the molecular biology of memory.
Their study looked at the effect of nicotine as a primer for cocaine preference in mice. This builds on a smaller human study in 2004 and was perhaps inspired by a study which showed that 87% of cocaine users had previously smoked tobacco in some form or other; while another 6% or so took up both cocaine and tobacco at the same time. Of all cocaine users sampled, only 3% had never smoked a cigarette – the remainder took up smoking after taking up cocaine.
The study looked at both locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference studies in mice. Both demonstrated that a mouse primed with nicotine was more likely to react or desire cocaine. The first test gave mice water which was either pure water, cocaine water or nicotine water then after a while, replaced it with cocaine water. The mice should more of a response to the nicotine followed by cocaine water than another other. Conditioned place preference involved giving the mice a choice after a base. The base was one of the three, then the choice involved either water or cocaine water. Those given nicotine water first were far more likely to choose the cocaine water than the others.
In short, any nicotine containing product has health risks and carries the risk of continued addiction. The safest and most effective means of quitting the habit, is to dispense with nicotine products altogether.
The Article above was kindly provided by Mark Wollacott.
ndy Cox from Assured Effects Hypnotherapy in Poole. Bournemouth and Wimborne said “This is a great article from Mark and puts into print what many of us practicing hypnotherapists have been seen increasingly over the last few years. I am frequently seeing many ex-smokers coming to see me who have taken up smoking again through using e-cigarettes. More worryingly, I have had several cases of e-smokers coming to see me because they have become hooked on the e-smoking habit.”
“At Assured Effects Hypnotherapy we use clinical hypnosis to change the habits of a smoker to a non-smoker in just 90 minutes. Our clients are pleased to break the addiction of putting a cigarette or e-cigarette to their mouth throughout their day, and leave us feeling happy to be smoke free for life.”
E-Cigarettes: The Ultimate Gateway to Addiction?
By Ella Moss from kwikmed.org
When I was a child, it was possible to buy candy cigarettes, now often called candy sticks, which were a sweet treat in a long white stick like form. Of course we pretended they were real cigarettes like in the movies before chomping on them for the sweet rush. In his documentary, SuperSize Me, controversial filmmaker Morgan Spurlock cited them as an example of brand imprinting for later actualization – i.e. get kids to like the candy, so teenagers like real cigarettes because of a formed hand-to-mouth memory.
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